Do you make all the cells the same colour? And if so, what colour? And if not, what colours for which cells?
The vacuole contains cell sap, which acts as an osmoregulator by helping remove excess water from the cell.
It was named cell because Robert Hooke, who discovered it said that it looked like a cellula or small room for the monks.
Português: Desenhar uma Célula Animal, Русский: нарисовать животную клетку, Español: dibujar una célula animal, Français: dessiner une cellule animale, Italiano: Disegnare una Cellula Animale, Bahasa Indonesia: Menggambar Sel Hewan, Deutsch: Eine tierische Zelle zeichnen
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Draw rod-shaped ovals for the mitochondria. The mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. Draw them by making two or three large, rod-shaped ovals in the cell but outside the nucleus. Each mitochondrion (singular) should contain an enclosed shape with many ridges and switchback lines.
 This shape represents the mitochondrial cristae or inner folds of the organelle’s membrane that provide more surface area to carry out processes. Leave a gap between the oval of the outer membrane and the inner membrane.
Draw a pinocytic vesicle. Detailed animal cell models may also include a pinocytic vesicle on the cell membrane. This will appear as a small bulbous shape. It should push into the outer circle of the cell membrane without breaking it.
 In pinocytosis the cell membrane wraps around extracellular fluids (those outside the cell). It then pulls the fluid into the cell for digestion or absorption. This is why you draw the vesicle as a bulbous shape that the membrane has wrapped around.
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Draw a set of dumbbell-like shapes for the Golgi body. To make the Golgi body (or Golgi apparatus), draw a set of three dumbbell-type shapes that are cylindrical at the center and bulbous at the ends. Each dumbbell should successively increase in size as they get farther from the nucleus and closer to the cell membrane.
 The Golgi body packages and sends complex molecules around and out of the cell. It does this via vesicles that you can represent around the Golgi body with a few small circles. Capitalize Golgi since it is the name of the discovering biologist.
If you can fit the label in the corresponding part of the cell, you can write it in there. Otherwise, you can draw a line out from the part of the cell to its label.
Draw finger-like shapes for the endoplasmic reticulum. Starting at one edge of the nuclear membrane, draw a large shape that extends out of the membrane with several finger-like shapes pointing to each side before reconnecting to the nucleus.
 This entire shape is the endoplasmic reticulum. The shape should be fairly large because the endoplasmic reticulum can take up as much as 10% of the volume of the entire cell. Animal cells have both a smooth and a rough endoplasmic reticulum.
To make the rough endoplasmic reticulum, place dots on the outside edge of the finger-like shapes on one side of the endoplasmic reticulum. These dots represent ribosomes.
Cells are one of the most basic building blocks of life. Whether single-celled or multi-celled, all organisms have them. Animal cells differ from plant cells in several regards though, including the lack of vacuoles, chloroplasts, and cell walls. By knowing what organelles animal cells have and their general shapes, you can easily draw an animal cell.
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Any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products.
Draw arrows pointing to each part of the cell and on the other side of the arrow write the name of that part.
Draw a simple circle or oval for the cell membrane. The cell membrane of an animal cell is not a perfect circle. You can make the circle misshapen or oblong. The important part is that it does not have any sharp edges.
 Also know that the membrane is not a rigid cell wall like in plant cells. Cell membranes do allow molecules to pass in and out of animal cells. Make the circle large enough to decipher all the organelles you draw inside.
Lysosomes are produced by the Golgi apparatus and appear like small spherical bodies featuring a single membrane confining it. They contain hydrolytic enzymes, which have been made in the ER and then passed to the Golgi bodies, from where the lysosomes get it.
Their prime function is breaking down of cellular waste substances from the cell, into simplified substances. The simplified versions are then transferred to the cytoplasm of the animal cell for building new cell materials.
Lysosomes are able to do this with the help of over three dozen types of hydrolytic enzymes like lipases, nucleases, proteases, polysaccharidases, etc. Thus, lysosomes are responsible for digestion of nutrients in animal cells.
They are also responsible for recycling organic material of the cell. They hold enzymes that were created by the cell. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies.
Draw a squiggle for the chromatin material. Most of the rest of the nucleus interior should appear as one big squiggle. This squiggle represents the chromatin material such as DNA and proteins.
The animal cell can commit suicide. When the broken cell is damaged beyond recovery it destroys itself, the process is called apoptosis.
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Vacuoles are fluid-filled cavities encompassed by a membrane present within the cell. They have no basic shape or structure and their size and shape depends on the requirements of the cell. These vacuoles act as storage areas for the cells and play significant roles in release of cellular waste substances and intracellular digestion.
These cavities store food and other nutrients, required for the cell’s nourishment. Vacuoles are present in most animal cells, however, are smaller, as compared to the plant cell vacuole. A plant cell usually has one large vacuole, however, an animal cell is seen to contain two to three small vacuoles.
The main role of vacuoles in animal cells is getting rid of waste materials and excess water. They are mostly involved in the processes of exocytosis and endocytosis in animal cells. Some animal cells do not possess vacuoles.
Exocytosis is a process in which the proteins and lipids are extruded from the cell. Endocytosis is the reverse of exocytosis and occurs in a variety of ways. Phagocytosis (cell eating) is the process by which dead tissue material and bacteria are engulfed by cells.
Pinocytosis (cell drinking) is a process in which the substances being ingested are in solution form. Cell eating and drinking are both undertaken in association with lysosymes which complete the breakdown of the engulfed material.
The nucleolus is situated in the center of the nucleus. The main components of the nucleolus are RNA, DNA, and proteins. The key function of the nucleolus is the production of subunits which then combine to form ribosomes.
Apart from this, the nucleolus is also involved in about half of the RNA synthesis.
Ribosomes are small, spherical organelles comprising 65% ribosomal RNA and 35% ribosomal proteins. Animal cells contain ribosomes with four strands of RNA. Ribosomes are very small organelles (non-membranous) and are present in thousands (millions in some) inside the cell.
These organelles are sites of protein assemblage and are responsible for protein synthesis. They occur scattered in the cytoplasm (free or floating ribosomes) and are also found adhering to the surface of ER (bound ribosomes).
The floating ribosomes synthesize proteins that are used by the inside of the cell, whereas the bound ribosomes synthesize proteins that will be used both by the inside of the cell and for export to the outer region of the cell.
Draw another small circle for the lysosome. The lysosome is like the scrapyard of the cell that breaks down unneeded material to reuse. Represent the lysosome with a small circle at the edge of the cell.
Add many small dots in the lysosome to show the digestive enzymes inside, which is called a hydrolytic enzyme mixture. You can place the lysosome near the Golgi apparatus since the organelles are often budded from the Golgi body.
Cytoplasm or cytosol is nothing but the clear, jelly-like substance filling the cell. To be more precise, it is that fluid material present outside the nucleus and within the cell membrane, into which various cell organelles are scattered.
The jelly-like substance is made of dissolved nutrients (fatty acids, sugars), salts and enzymes. The substance helps different materials move throughout the cell, by a process called cytoplasmic streaming.
Cytoplasm comprises a network of cytoplasmic filaments, that are responsible for the shape of the cell. Moreover, they also help the cell move. Waste materials are also dissolved in the cytosol, from where it gets taken in by the vacuoles.
Also known as golgi complex, these are piles of flattened sacs (smooth cisternae), layered one above the other and connected to each other. One can observe the golgi apparatus in the labeled animal cell parts diagram.
The golgi apparatus is situated near the cell nucleus and besides the stacked sacs, it also contains large number of vesicles. The main function of this golgi complex is to receive the proteins synthesized in the ER and transform it into more complex proteins.
The proteins are processed as they pass from one flattened sac to another and are packaged into vesicles. They are also sorted depending on their final destinations, such as plasma membrane, lysosome, etc.
and then sent their way. The final protein product is then released into the cytoplasm. The vesicles in the apparatus are used to send molecules to the cellular membrane, from where excretion takes place.
As you read the information on each organelle, refer to the animal cell diagram for better clarity. To check if you have understood the cell parts, draw a blank animal cell diagram and try to fill in the different parts without referring to the labeled one given here.
This will help you understand how much you have comprehended.
The normal size of an animal cell is around 10 to 30 micrometers. Just to give you an idea, a strand of human hair is around 100 to 150 micrometers wide.
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Chromosomes are the thread-like structures present inside the nucleus of an animal cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The DNA contains instructions that make each living organism unique.
The unique structure of chromosomes helps in keeping the DNA tightly wrapped around spool-like proteins called histones. During cell division, it is essential that the DNA remains intact and gets evenly distributed among the cells.
Every human body cell contains 46 chromosomes or two complete sets. A cell that contains two complete sets of chromosomes is called a diploid cell, and that which contains only one set is called a haploid cell.
Only eggs and sperms contain one set, whereas all the other cells of the body contain two sets. Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual are known as sex chromosomes. In humans, X and Y are sex chromosomes.
Females have two X chromosomes and males have one X and one Y chromosome. Autosomes are all the other chromosomes in the organism. Of the 46 chromosomes in humans, 44 are autosomes and the remaining two are the sex chromosomes.
Changes in the number or structure of chromosomes in new cells can result in serious problems. Numerical abnormalities occur when an individual has more than two chromosomes in a pair or has one chromosome missing from the pair.
A classic example of numerical abnormality is Down’s Syndrome. Structural abnormalities can manifest in the form of deletions, duplications, inversions, or translocations.
Draw two circles for the cell nucleus. The nucleus is one of the larger structures of the cell. Form the nucleus by drawing two circles—a larger circle that takes up around 10% of the cell with a slightly smaller circle inside it.
 The nucleus of an animal cell has pores in it called nuclear pores. To represent these pores, erase three or four small sections of each circle. Then connect the outer lines to the inner lines. The finished product will resemble curved cylinders that don’t quite touch.
 This outer shell of the nuclear membrane is also called the nuclear envelope. To make a highly detailed cell model, put several dots on the outside of the nuclear membrane to represent ribosomes that attach to the membrane.
A golgi apparatus or golgi complex is a set of membranes bounded in fluid — filled viscles, vacoules and flattened cristernae (closed sacs). It exists near the nucleus in animal cells.
Draw a small shaded circle for the nucleus. The nucleolus is at the center of the nucleus and makes ribosomal sub-units that combine elsewhere in the cell. Represent the nucleolus with a small shaded circle.
Centrioles are two self-replicating, cylindrical bodies comprising 9 triplet bundles of microtubules, which means each bundle has 3 microtubules and there are 9 such bundles. Centrioles are present only in animal cells and each animal cell contains two centrioles arranged perpendicular to each other.
Their main function is to assist the organization in cell division process, thus, they are active both during mitosis and meiosis. During cell division the centrioles replicate and move to opposite poles of the nucleus.
Thus, the new centrosome halves have a pair of centrioles each and form new independent daughter cells.
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Most instructors will make you to label each structure on a test or assignment. Get in the habit of labeling each structure and organelle. If you wish to draw a particular cell such as an amoeba or paramecium, study them first.
There are usually some other structures like flagella, cilia, pseudo podium, etc. If you are making a 3D model, then use paper mache to make it.
Draw two small rectangles at right angles to represent centrioles. Centrioles help assist with cell division. They are close to but separate from the nucleus. Form the centrioles by drawing two small rectangles perpendicular to each other near the nucleus.
 The centrioles are paired organelles, which is why you draw two of the rectangles together.
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Cell membrane or plasma membrane is a membrane common to both plant and animal cells. However, the cell membrane in plant cells is quite rigid, while, the cell membrane in animal cells is quite flexible.
As observed in the labeled animal cell diagram, the cell membrane forms the confining factor of the cell, that is it envelopes the cell constituents together and gives the cell its shape, form, and existence.
Cell membrane is made up of lipids and proteins and forms a barrier between the extracellular liquid bathing all cells on the exterior and the cell organelles floating in the cell’s cytoplasm. This membrane is semi-permeable, thus, it allows only selected substances to pass through it into the cell’s interior.
It is a fluid mosaic structure which is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and other important macromolecules such as proteins. It separates the cell from the outer environment and allows the free movement of materials in and out of the cell.
Add dots inside the cell but outside the other organelles to show ribosomes. Ribosomes also float around in the cytosol, which is the cellular fluid inside the membrane but outside of all the organelles.
Show the extra ribosomes in the cytosol by making several more dots inside the cell. If you have color-coordinated your drawing, make the ribosomes in the cell, attached to the nuclear membrane, and attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum all the same color.
Cytosol and cytoplasm are often used interchangeably for the fluid in the cell. Though the fluid in the nucleus is nucleoplasm.
Mitochondria (singular – mitochondrion) are double membrane-bound cells, scattered in the cell’s cytoplasm. The double membrane comprises one outer smooth membrane and one inner convoluted membrane, forming loops called cristae.
Both these membranes together form the outer double membrane and keep the fluid-filled matrix within the mitochondria from mingling with the cytoplasm of the cell. A cell may contain thousands of mitochondria, depending on its requirement.
Mitochondria is popularly called ‘the power house of the cell’ as it furnishes the cell with all the energy required (ATP), from food and oxygen. This process is known as cellular respiration, and the ATP or energy produced is used to carry out functions like locomotion, cell division, production of secretory products, etc.
The number of mitochondria present in cells may vary depending on the cell’s activity.
Protoplasm makes up the living part of the cell. It includes the cytoplasm, nucleus, and other organelles.
ER is a vast network of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae in the cell’s cytoplasm. There exists two types of ER: Rough ER and Smooth ER. Rough ER features several ribosomes attached to its surface, thereby conducing to its rough appearance and appears like sheets of membranes placed together.
The function of rough ER is protein synthesis and transport of nutrients. It transports proteins to the Golgi apparatus, via small vesicles. The smooth ER unlike the rough one, has a tubular appearance and does not have ribosomes attached to their surface, thereby giving them the smooth appearance.
Its function is to produce and store steroids, lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and detoxification of poisons and other harmful substances.
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The cell nucleus is the trademark of any eukaryotic cell. Plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cells, which means they possess a true nucleus. The cell nucleus is a spherical-shaped body encompassing a nucleolus, chromosomes with DNA, nucleoplasm and some other organelles, all of it is surrounded by a nuclear membrane (double membrane made up of protein and lipids).
This nucleus consists of highly specialized cell organelles that take care of storing the cell’s hereditary material (DNA) and also coordination of different cell activities like protein synthesis, cell division, growth, etc.
What the brain is to the body, such is the nucleus to the cell.